Police Investigation


It is with a sense of great appreciation that I write this ‘Foreword’ for the book ‘Police Investigation : Powers, Tactics and Techniques’ authored by Thiru V. Sithannan. He had earlier authored “Immoral Traffic: Prostitution in India” which was well received as an authentic research work on the subject.

In his present work titled ‘Police Investigation: Powers, Tactics and Techniques’, the author has meticulously catalogued the tools available to a police officer to become a successful investigator. He has carefully listed the duties of Police Officers at various stages of investigation and the legal and statutory supports officially available to an investigating officer.

The book contains 27 chapters and 4 annexures. In all the chapters, the author describes the problems at hand in elaborate detail, supported by relevant statistical and legal data, drawn from authentic sources. The first chapter includes a discussion on the development of a settled society, the origin of law in society and the emergence of military and police in developing societies.

In the following chapters, the author has given an exhaustive account of the role and powers of Police in the registration of offences and taking up of investigation. He has also discussed problems encountered by a Police Officer during the investigation, the trial till the judgement. The book dexterously deals with problems such as the jurisdiction of a Police Officer, the dying declaration of victims, the conducting of inquest, arrest, interrogation and confession of the accused, etc. A particularly praiseworthy feature of the book is its focus on crimes against children and women. Apart from Police Officers, Advocates, Law and Judicial Officers would also find this book very useful as a reference book. The reference to judgements pertaining to a host of criminal cases during the period 1965-2008 merit careful study by the guardians of Law. The checklist provided at the end of each chapter can serve as a ready-reckoner to the Police Officers at various stages of investigation.

I congratulate Thiru V. Sithannan for writing this extremely useful book which would be a handy guide for all law enforcement officers. I also commend this work as a reference book for all Police Officers, Advocates, Judicial Officers, General Libraries, Departmental Libraries, the NGOs and Social Activists.

Director General of Police,
Tamil Nadu, India.

Mr. V. Sithannan has come up with one of the most comprehensive books on ‘Police Investigation’.

Every chapter has very useful material, carefully culled from several sources. Like a bonus thrown in, the Annexure has the relevant provisions of various Acts and codes, nearly making this book a single window of reference.

A trainee and a veteran equally will find this book a useful aid. To cite an example, under chapter 14, “Arrest”, he has cited 37 landmark judgements. By reading these fourteen pages alone one can avert many a pitfall.

I commend the mammoth effort by Mr. Sithannan.

K. Vijay Kumar, IPS
Director General of Police,
Police Training College,
Tamil Nadu, India.

Every Police Officer is taught the nuances of investigation, with latest case laws at the Training Institution. Once out of the Police Training College / Police Training Academy / National Police Academy, unless he or she has to conduct investigation on a daily basis, a number of details / proceedings tend to get forgotten. Refresher / In-service courses certainly help to bridge the gap.

With Thiru Sithannan’s book ‘Police Investigation-Powers, Tactics and Techniques’ , every Police Officer will be able to do a comprehensive investigation even if he/ she just follows the checklists given. The book is written in simple language, which can be easily understood by all Police Officers and will serve as a valuable tool / guide for every officer who has to investigate a crime, participate in the All India Police Duty Meet etc. This is a more exhaustive treatise than his initial one, prepared when he was working in the Police Training College and which is still used by IOs all over the state.

I congratulate Thiru Sithannan on his work and for the effort taken and wish him success in future projects of this kind that he will undertake.

Addl. Director General of Police,Administration,
Tamil Nadu, India.

The treatise “Police Investigation: Powers, Tactics and Techniques”, authored by Thiru. V. Sithannan, is a masterly work, adorning the grand architecture of Law and its Enforcement. The treatise begins with a discourse on the birth of the institutions of Military and Police and then takes us into a varied and scholarly journey into the minute details of the nature of crime, its investigation by Police officers, and further processes to be taken by Police officers till the judgement is pronounced, and the accused is either punished or exonerated, if he is found innocent.

A remarkable feature of the book is it’s targeted focus on crimes against women and children and on the Juveniles in conflict with Law. Another praise-worthy aspect of the book is that amidst the luxurious growth of titles dealing with similar subjects, this title is the only one having a checklist, meticulous in details, at the end of each chapter. Such checklists would surely make any investigating officer, never miss even a minute detail while undertaking the process of investigation of a crime, beginning from the nature of crime, its modus operandi, collection of evidence, inference of motives, filing of FIR, the safe keep of Police records and the final step in taking the case to the “Halls of Justice”.

Even though the book deals in detail with ‘Crime and Punishment’, yet the profound humanity of the author Thiru. V. Sithannan manifests itself throughout the pages of the book as the invisible human face of a socially concerned Police officer in investigating the crime.

I congratulate the author Thiru. V.Sithannan in bringing out this masterly treatise on investigation. This title would certainly be a most sought-after guide book for officers of Law, its Enforcement, Justice and Social activists.

R.Sekar, I.P.S.,
Additional Director General of Police,Civil Supplies CID,
Tamil Nadu, India.

Thiru V. Sithannan, author of ‘Police Investigation: Powers, Tactics and Techniques’, has marked the book to the Guardians of Law, belonging to all societies and the whole world. Anchoring himself firmly on the ever-contested space of Indian Law and the Legal Processes, and drawing substantive support from his rich and varied experience as a Law Enforcement Officer in the Police Department of Tamil Nadu, India, the Author, in presenting this scholarly work has sought to fulfill the legitimate requirements of Police Officers, Advocates, Judicial Officers, Social Activists, NGOs, Gender Activists and the general public.

2. While writing this book, the academic pursuit of the author is in full bloom, as he has drawn valuable and authenticated data from various enactments, official documents, court judgements and a vast domain of related literature of national and international significance.

3. Moreover, in this scholarly work, the author does not limit himself to expressing his sentiments of fellowship to the investigating Police Officers, but also is concerned more about their legitimate and authorized duties, responsibilities, jurisdiction, rights of the accused and the natural processes of the long arm of Law.

4. That the Author’s utopian ideal of no innocent person should be punished and no offender should go unpunished can be seen to dominate the whole message of the book. For this purpose, the Author has taken extra pains to give a balanced treatment of the whole problem of crime and its investigation.

5. The book contains 27 Chapters and 4 Annexrues. The dominant theme running through all the Chapters is a scholarly discussion of the problem at hand in a logical sequence in all its procedural nuances and operational dimensions. For example, in the 1st Chapter itself the Author highlights the nature of a settled society and the origin of crime and the birth of military and Police. In the succeeding chapters he discusses the structure, powers and the duties of police, the conduct of investigation, the first information report, the jurisdictional limitations of police, dying declaration, inquest, search and seizure,examination of witnesses, arrest, interrogation, confession, bail, remand and custody,test identification parade, tender of pardon to approver, letter rogatory, extradition,burden of proof and presumptions, police diaries, final report, further investigation and maintenance of Police records.

6. The chapters on examination of the scene of crime and evidence collection are dealt in an elaborate manner with the aid of forensic medicine and forensic science. The comparative chart given to aid the Police Officers to conclude whether death is suicidal or homicidal or accidental in all forms of death that are encountered by the Police while conducting investigation will be of immense use with scientific accuracy. The chart provided for the collection of evidence, its preservation, forwarding to the laboratory and the analysis required will empower the investigating Police Officers to ensure a chain of custody when material objects are forwarded for analysis to ensure accurate results in order to conclusively connect the accused with the crime.

7. A most praise-worthy feature of the book is its detailed discussion on the immature juveniles, who are in conflict with law, and on investigation of crimes against children and women. The Author has also given a detailed account of the type of compensation to be paid to the hapless victims of crime.

8. As an experienced Police Officer, the Author has fulfilled the needs of the investigating Officers in the epilogue by providing 47 points which may go against the prosecution, and therefore, has given 48 tips for the successful prosecution of a criminal case by a Police Officer. In the true spirit of a socially-concerned Police Officer, the Author has also given suitable recommendations for reforming the entire architecture of Laws on crimes and their investigation.

9. Again, in the spirit of an academic researcher, the Author has given a catalogue of 724 Checklists in all the Chapters so that the readers would find the book highly informative to have a statutorily authorised answer to any doubt in a given situation in any of the investigative procedures. The citation of 785 landmark judgements of various High Courts and the Supreme Court for the period 1965-2008 in the appropriate chapters is another outstanding feature of the book, making it vade mecum for Police Officers, Advocates, Officers of Law and Courts and also for NGOs, Social Activists and Persons of Public Interest.

10. I am always an admirer of the diligence, knowledge and hard work of Thiru. V. Sithannan and I am sure his work will be of great support to one and all and the Police Officers in particular.

K. Radhakrishnan,
Additional Director General of Police and Commissioner of Police,
Tamil Nadu, India.

Falling rates of conviction have been a matter of great concern in recent years. There are very few detectives in the Police force. There is variety of reasons behind the dismal rates, but one, which is most disturbing, is the lack of adequate skills on the part of the investigating officer. Author V. Sithannan, ADSP and Vigilance Officer, Corporation of Chennai has precisely plugged this loophole by coming with a superb compedium of Investigational Tactics and Techniques.

Apart from the training given to the Sub-Inspectors of Police at the Police Training College, very few get an opportunity to undergo specialized training in Investigation during the next 35 years of their career. This book, which is comprehensive and copious with references,is really a boon to an investigating officer. Care has been taken to include recent social legislations in the book. A number of landmark Supreme Court judgements have been cited.Statistics have also been provided wherever relevant to place certain issues in perspective.The powers of the police officers derived from various Acts and Rules have been clearly delineated. The author comes out with flying colours when he dissects actual investigational skills and procedures. It is an excellent treatise in police procedurals.

The author is known for his academic bent of mind and already has a couple of publications to his credit. I am sure that this book will be a feather in his cap and a handy tool in the hands of investigating officers of not only Tamil Nadu but also beyond its borders.

Additional Director General of Police,Law & Order,
Tamil Nadu, India.